Climate Change Risk Management in Egypt (MDGF-1675)

Countries: Egypt
Level: National
Region: MENA Region
Tags: Adaptation measure | Agriculture | Capacity building & knowledge transfer | Institutional measure | Planning & Policy
Target audience: Agricultural authorities | Environmental authorities | Farmers | Industry/business | Local government/municipalities | National government | NGOs and CSOs | Regional government | Scientists | Students/university | Water authorities | Water companies

The aim of the Joint Programme (JP) was to help Egypt align national climate risk management and human development efforts to pursue the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in the face of climate change risks. In this context, the project aimed to reduce poverty and mitigate climate-related risks by combining mitigation and adaptation under one integrated “Climate Risk Management” programme. Special attention was given to the most vulnerable populations in the country through two complementary approaches:

a) Mainstreaming greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation into national policy and investment frameworks, including increased Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) financing opportunities; and
b) Enhancing the country’s capacity to adapt to climate change.


Further, the programme sought to build awareness and the capacity of key decision makers and development actors to support the systematic integration of climate change considerations into relevant policy, regulatory, institutional and operational frameworks. Activities implemented within programme included:

  • Defining capacity needs for the technical secretariat;
  • Compiling existing relevant studies and information;
  • Preparing energy policy papers;
  • Coordinating activities among ministries on the implementation of Supreme Energy Council (SEC) decisions;
  • Synergising implementation of SEC decisions with ongoing national initiatives;
  • Assessing existing policies (climate screening and proofing);
  • Assessing adaptation capacity needs and gaps using a gender-sensitive methodology;
  • Carrying out a macro-economic analysis on the cost of climate change on coastal zones using a gender-sensitive methodology;
  • Advocating for the adoption of developed adaptation policies and strategies;
  • Executing a survey on hydrological and statistical models in the Nile Forecast Centre;
  • Executing a survey available on the Regional Circulation Model (e.g. Regional Climatic-Hydrologic Model) in cooperation of the Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute and PERCIS and in communication with UK Met Office;
  • Identifying and assessing expected outputs from the Regional Circulation Model tender for its adaptation;
  • Identifying and assessing climate risk management measures for UN development programmes and operations;
  • Development guidelines to reduce climate change impacts;
  • Identifying appropriate media channels of communication;
  • Developing a national communication strategy on climate change;
  • Raising the awareness of policy makers and the general public; and
  • Incorporating climate change impacts and scenarios within Nile Basin Initiative water resources management projects, as well as introducing a decision support system.

Results obtained

  • In 2012, over 40,000 taxis were scrapped and replaced with new energy-efficient cars.
  • The EEU (Eurasian Economic Union) has initiated market dialogues in three targeted sectors to promote solar water heaters to evaluate various incentive schemes.
  • A plan to reduce energy consumption in public buildings was approved, and international contracts for carbon-trading projects were issued.
  • The CDM Awareness and Promotion Unit facilitated the import from Ukraine of an environmentally friendly charcoal kiln.
  • In the water sector, the programme supported the modelling of various climate change scenarios. It provided resources to develop forecasting capacity, including the training of staff. As a result, long-term forecast analysis of climate change impact on water flows became more accurate.
  • A documentary film, The Future of Climate Change in Egypt, was produced.

Success factors

  • A critical factor was that both the ministry and government acknowledged that climate change is a real risk, and that they pledged full support.
  • The comprehensive action plan covered the largest possible area and was implemented on as many levels as possible.

Indicators used

  • SEC decrees were issued requiring mainstream GHG mitigation measures through energy efficiency and renewable energy.
  • Number of CDM projects registered.
  • Energy intensity.
  • Generation of CO2 per capita.
  • Endorsement and adoption of a “National Climate Change Adaptation Plan”.
  • Number of NBI water resources management programmes and projects, as well as decision support systems facilitating successful RCM adaptation and application.
  • Number of successful adoption of stress-tolerant crop varieties and proposed cropping patterns in selected locations.
  • Crop yield per unit volume of water for selected crops.

Similar programmes can be applied in other regions where there is a need to develop sustainable climate change management action plans. The programmes of this project covered a wide range of technical, economic and social areas and integrated the results of multiple projects, including the provision of relevant staff to be trained, etc. Members of cooperating organisations and institutions should be responsive in taking the necessary steps towards assessment and development.

Total costs

  • USD 4 million


Mr. Jean-Joseph Bellamy, Senior Evaluator (

Dr. Tarek Genena, Evaluator (