Development of A Water Consumption Model for The Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST) Campus Female Students Dormitory (CFSD)
An eight-week monitoring of the water meters at JUST-CFSD was conducted to determine the actual water consumption from the dormitory buildings. The dormitory complex has seven buildings (two wings and four floors) and houses 761 students. The reading from the meters was recorded twice per week, so two sets of weekly consumption figures were obtained. Al-Majali (2002) conducted an audit for the dormitory building to determine the exact inventory of water fixture, including type, condition, flow rate and whether they were leaking. A questionnaire was prepared to obtain additional information on the number of students in each building and how water was being used. End-use analysis at (JUST-CFSD) was used to develop a water consumption model. In addition, the questionnaire provided information on water user behavior. The model reported good results for the five buildings in which it was tested, with an average deviation from metered average consumption of 14 percent. Using the model, the expected savings in consumption from retrofitting the buildings was estimated to be 30 percent. The investment was feasible, with a payback period of just six months. Since the value of water is higher than the price of water (prices are not cost-covering, plus scarcity is not reflected in prices), the “social return” of such an investment is even more attractive.
The traditional supply augmentation approach to water management demonstrated its inability to provide efficient, sustained and equitable water provision. Natural water shortages are aggravated by over-abstraction, leading to resource depletion and quality deterioration. Water demand management (WDM) policies and measures serve to conserve available resources. WDM integrates water management and wastewater management strategies in an approach that ensures beneficial, efficient, sustained and equitable water resource utilisation. End-use analysis is an important tool for investigating water usage in detail. End-use analysis conducted at the Jordan University of Science and Technology Campus for Female Students Dormitory (JUST-CFSD) was used to develop a water consumption model. The model reported good results for the five buildings in which it was tested, with an average deviation of 14 percent from the metered average consumption. Using the model, the expected water consumption savings from retrofitting the buildings was 30 percent. The investment is feasible, with a payback period of six months.
The following tables provide quantitative details about the project:
Table 1: Summary of the water audit for the fixtures in dormitory before retrofitting (See table)
Table 2: Water user behaviour by students (See table)
Table 3: Baseline flow rate versus retrofitting flow rate for dormitory water appliances and fixtures (See table)
The retrofitting cost was reasonable, and a fund was available. The university benefited from the project by reducing the water consumption and therefore saving money.
An important conclusion of the project was that maintenance of all water saving devices is critical. Water saving devices that are not maintained properly can result in water waste. If the devices are not sufficiently repaired and maintained, hard water can clog them. This type of maintenance is easy: they simply need to be removed, cleaned and reinstalled. Regular maintenance is important, not only to sustain water savings, but also because if the devices are clogged, then students may remove them when they experience a nuisance.
The sustainability of the results depends on other factors as well, such as:
- an awareness raising campaign targeting the young generation; and
- continuous maintenance of water saving devices to ensure future water savings.
- One year after the measures were implemented, the dormitory’s per capita water consumption declined by over 30 percent, confirming the original expectations.
- The payback period was about six months.
- Low investment need
- Short payback period
- The retrofitting of devices was a good measure for achieving potential water savings of 30 percent
- Awareness raising on the importance of water savings separately targeted the young generation
- Time series of total and per capita consumption data
- Water savings per fixture
This case study can be repeated in similar locations, such as schools, hospitals, and residential and commercial properties. Maintenance and communication are important pre-conditions to success.
Fayez Abdulla, firstname.lastname@example.org
- Al-Majali, A. (2002). “Water efficiency of using water saving devices: A case study for students accommodations within JUST Campus”, Civil Engineering Department, Jordan University of Science andTechnoloty, Jordan
- Abdulla, F. A. and Haddad R. (2002). “Developing a water consumption model for the JUST Campus Female Students Dormitory”, Queen Rania Alabdullah Centre for Environmental Sciences and Technology, Irbid, Jordan